The E-Saximeter registers all relevant pile driving parameters. It calculates the hammer operating rate in blows per minute and helps the piling inspector create a pile driving log. For single acting, open end diesel hammers the E-Sax also displays the hammer potential energy and ram stroke, important since excessive stroke can cause pile damage.
The E-Sax is a hand held instrument. In its basic configuration the pile inspector observes the driving process and pushes a button for every depth increment as driving progresses. Several accessories further enhance the functionality of this time tested sound recognition device:
A depth measurement reel with wireless transmission capabilities eliminates the need for manual depth increment input, automating the entire creation of the driving log.
Proximity switches installed on the driving hammer and a wireless transmission system (transmitter attached to the driving hammer and E-Sax internal transceiver) enable the E-Saximeter to compute the hammer kinetic energy (kinetic energy may be input to the GRLWEAP pile driving simulation software to fine-tune the driving criteria).
"Energy monitoring was specified in the (Woodrow Wilson Bridge) contract Special Provisions. The main benefit of the monitoring is for the Virginia Department of Transportation to have more accurate driving logs than are typically created by hand. When correlated with the PDA results, it allows driving criteria to be in terms of hammer energy instead of blows per foot at a certain stroke." - Ryan G. Gorman, P.E., Project Manager, Corman Construction, Inc. (note: PDA is the Pile Driving Analyzer® - the E-Sax can assess hammer potential and kinetic energy, while the PDA calculates the energy actually transferred to the pile)
The PILE DRIVING ANALYZER (PDA,) system is the most widely employed system for Dynamic Load Testing in the world. It can assess the capacity of multiple drilled shafts, cast-in-place, continuous flight auger, helical, bored or driven piles in a single day. Micropiles may also be tested with the PDA. If you plan to use your PDA to test driven piles
The PDA Model 8G is the culmination of a complete redesign effort that incorporates the latest technological innovations and truly embody Pile Dynamics's commitment to quality. The PDA-8G is as sophisticated in its looks as it is in the software that powers it. Thin, light and ergonomic, it features touchscreen gesture controls like swiping and pinch-to-zoom. The PDA-8Gs may have 4 or 8 universal channels of data acquisition, all capable of reading data from Smart Sensors, be it in traditional (cabled) or wireless mode. This allows for extreme testing flexibility and makes PDA testing of large drilled shafts more convenient than ever.
The PIR is an Automated Monitoring Equipment that assists in the correct installation of augered cast in place (ACIP) / continuous flight auger (CFA) and drilled displacement piles by displaying target versus actual poured concrete volume in real time.
The equipment may be installed in any crane, including those operating with low headroom. As the crane proceeds from pile to pile, the operator easily monitors the installation of every pile on the job. At the same time, an inspector or supervisor may follow the installation on the wireless PIR-Viewer.
"The first time we used it, we identified a soft area at the toe that we had missed during our regular inspection. Since then, we specify the PIR on all of our auger cast pile projects." Philip Erbland, Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
The key parameters for a precise installation are pumped grout volume and auger depth. The PIR accurately records and displays both in real time. The equipment consists of a main unit installed in the crane cabin, a depth measurement device*, a Foxboro magnetic flow meter, a pressure transducer that gives an indication of the auger torque and an auger rotation measurement. The Angle Analyzer, a device that measures pile angle of installation, is an optional accessory, as is the PIR-Viewer.
The PIR is totally operated through the touch screen display of the main unit. Its large readouts provide useful, easy to see information to the crane operator.
Results may be printed in the form of an installation log, on a small field printer, immediately after each pile is completed. Once data is downloaded to a computer the PIR-PLOT Software performs further analysis and outputs installation and productivity reports, along with graphs of key parameters versus depth.
The Pile Integrity Tester gives peace of mind that a pile or shaft is free of major cracks and voids, prior to construction of the superstructure. It may be used on most concrete or wood foundations. The PIT may also be used to test piles integral in the structure, such as those supporting existing bridges or towers, and may assess their length.
The PIT performs wave equation-based non-destructive foundation investigations known as Low Strain Impact Integrity Tests or Low Strain Dynamic Tests. These test may be performed by the Pulse (or Sonic) Echo or Transient Response Methods. With the PIT, any form of the test is performed fast, potentially making it possible to test every pile on a job site.
The PIT test consists of attaching one or two accelerometers to the foundation, and using a hand held hammer to impact it. The PIT collects the acceleration data and displays curves that reveal any significant changes in cross section that may exist along the shaft. The PIT-W software post processes the data and generates reports, while the PIT-S software simulates a PIT test and performs simplified signal matching to assess the shape of the foundation.
The Pile Integrity Tester is available in several configurations to match the needs of each user.
PIT-V and PIT-FV (pictured on the upper right of the page) have a large screen and read data from traditional (cabled) accelerometers and/or instrumented hammers.
PIT-X and PIT-XFV (pictured on the upper left) are smaller and lighter, and are available in traditional or wireless versions.
PIT-X and PIT-V offer a single channel for data acquisition and read velocity data from a single accelerometer. They analyze data in the Time Domain by the Pulse Echo method, which is sufficient for most integrity tests.
PIT-XFV and PIT-FV come with 2 channels of data acquisition and may read data from one accelerometer and one instrumented hammer or from two traditional accelerometers. The instrumented hammer furnishes data for a more thorough evaluation of the integrity of the foundation (force and velocity analysis in the Frequency Domain) and allows the investigation of defects near the pile top (Transient Response Method). The use of a second accelerometer may be useful when testing piles under existing structures, for determining unknown foundation length, and for large diameter piles.
"We saw the specs but nobody among us could imagine that the PIT-X is so tiny and light. Congratulations." Dr. Ing. Oswald Klingmüller, GSP, Germany
All models of the Pile Integrity Tester are battery powered, operated through a high visibility touch screen, and include a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) feature and a license of PIT-W Standard Software. All comply with ASTM D5882 and many other codes and specifications.
The Cross-Hole Analyzer (CHA) evaluates the quality of the concrete of deep foundations by the Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) method. It also performs Single Hole Sonic Logging (SSL).
The CHA model CHAMP consists of a main unit, a receiver and a transmitter in sturdy brass housing . two independent depth measuring devices, a tripod for assembling the test, and the powerful software CHA-W. Cables for the receiver and transmitter are available in various lengths. The optional Motorized Probe Deployment System relieves the operator from pulling the cables manually, making testing more comfortable.
Drilled shafts are prepared for the test by installation of PVC or steel tubes during their construction. During the test a transmitter is lowered down one of the tubes and sends a high frequency signal to a receiver inserted in another tube. Transmitter and receiver move down each pair of tubes, scanning the entire length of the shaft. CHAMP transmitters and receivers are available with cables of various lengths, and may each be positioned at different depth levels for maximum testing flexibility.
The CHAMP is small, light and operable by a color touch-screen visible in all lighting conditions. Its internal battery, designed to last an entire day of normal testing, frees the tester from a power source, allowing easy movement between shafts. Essential analysis is performed in the field in real time.
Field data is further analyzed by the CHA-W software, which outputs graphs such as First Arrival Time, Wave Speed, Waterfall Diagram and Energy Plot, and aids in test report preparation.
The CHAMP meets or exceeds the specifications for cross-hole sonic logging required by D6760 Standard Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing.
Thermal Integrity Profiler
The Thermal Integrity Profiler (TIP) uses the heat generated by curing cement to assess the quality of drilled shaftsand of bored, augered cast in place, continuous flight auger or drilled displacement piles. It may also be used for quality control and shape evaluation of jet grouting, slurry walls and diaphragm walls. TIP evaluates the entire cross-section and the entire length of the foundation. Results are available shortly after shaft installation is concluded: TIP reveals necks or inclusions (regions that are colder than average), bulges (regions that are warmer than average), variations in concrete cover, shape of the shaft and cage alignment.
The average temperature within a concrete shaft is dependent on its diameter, on the concrete mix design and onthe time of measurement relative to concrete casting. Measured temperatures at the reinforcement cage vary with the distance to the center of the shaft and with the concrete cover.
Thermal Integrity Profiler (TIP)
TIP is available in two models: with Thermal Wire®1 brand cables or with Probes 2.
The TIP THERMAL WIRE Model includes a starter set of THERMAL WIRE cables (copper cables fitted with uniformly spaced temperature sensors), and Thermal Acquisition Ports that transfer collected data to the TIP main unit. The cables are cast into the shaft (often tied to the rebar cage).
The TIP Probe Model includes a thermal probe (with 4 orthogonal temperature sensors) that is inserted into access tubes for data collection, and a Thermal Acquisition Port that transfers collected data to the TIP main unit. Shafts must be built with access tubes to be tested with this system.
Data collected by either TIP system is downloaded to a computer for analysis by the TIP Reporter Software. The TIP Reporter Software displays measured temperatures versus depth and mapped on cross sections of the shaft. A straightforward examination of these graphical representations is often sufficient to indicate a shaft with no integrity issues or one with defects.